Promoting Excellence : Comprehensive Bibliography and Resource Page for Critical Care End-of-Life Issues : Withholding/Withdrawing Life Support

Abe N, Catlin A, Mihara D. End of life in the NICU. A study of ventilator withdrawal. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2001; 26:141-6. [ Medline abstract ]

Asch DA, Faber-Langendoen K, Shea JA, Christakis NA. The sequence of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from patients. Am J Med 1999; 107:153-6. [ Medline abstract ]

Balfour-Lynn IM, Tasker RC. At the coalface--medical ethics in practice. Futility and death in paediatric medical intensive care. J Med Ethics 1996; 22:279-81. [ Medline abstract ]

Blackhall LJ, Frank G, Murphy ST, Michel V, Palmer JM, Azen SP. Ethnicity and attitudes towards life sustaining technology. Soc Sci Med 1999; 48:1779-89. [ Medline abstract ]

Borum ML, Lynn J, Zhong Z. The effects of patient race on outcomes in seriously ill patients in SUPPORT: an overview of economic impact, medical intervention, and end- of-life decisions. Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48:S194-8. [ Medline abstract ]

Burns JP, Mitchell C, Outwater KM, et al. End-of-life care in the pediatric intensive care unit after the forgoing of life-sustaining treatment. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:3060-6. [ Medline abstract ]

Campbell ML, Bizek KS, Thill M. Patient responses during rapid terminal weaning from mechanical ventilation: a prospective study. Crit Care Med 1999; 27:73-7. [ Medline abstract ]

Caniano DA, Hazebroek FW, DenBesten KE, Tibboel D. End-of-life decisions for surgical neonates: experience in The Netherlands and United States. J Pediatr Surg 1995; 30:1420-4. [ Medline abstract ]

Casarett D, Siegler M. Unilateral do-not-attempt-resuscitation orders and ethics consultation: a case series. Crit Care Med 1999; 27:1116-20. [ Medline abstract ]

Cook DJ, Giacomini M, Johnson N, Willms D. Life support in the intensive care unit: a qualitative investigation of technological purposes. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. Cmaj 1999; 161:1109-13. [ Medline abstract ]

Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Jaeschke R, et al. Determinants in Canadian health care workers of the decision to withdraw life support from the critically ill. Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. Jama 1995; 273:703-8. [ Medline abstract ]

de Leeuw R, de Beaufort AJ, de Kleine MJ, van Harrewijn K, Kollee LA. Foregoing intensive care treatment in newborn infants with extremely poor prognoses. A study in four neonatal intensive care units in The Netherlands. J Pediatr 1996; 129:661-6. [ Medline abstract ]

Eidelman LA, Jakobson DJ, Pizov R, Geber D, Leibovitz L, Sprung CL. Foregoing life-sustaining treatment in an Israeli ICU. Intensive Care Med 1998; 24:162-6. [ Medline abstract ]

Esteban A, Gordo F, Solsona JF, et al. Withdrawing and withholding life support in the intensive care unit: a Spanish prospective multi-centre observational study. Intensive Care Med 2001; 27:1744-9. [ Medline abstract ]

Faber-Langendoen K, Bartels DM. Process of forgoing life-sustaining treatment in a university hospital: an empirical study. Crit Care Med 1992; 20:570-7. [ Medline abstract ]

Ferrand E, Robert R, Ingrand P, Lemaire F. Withholding and withdrawal of life support in intensive-care units in France: a prospective survey. French LATAREA Group. Lancet 2001; 357:9-14. [ Medline abstract ]

Fins JJ, Miller FG, Acres CA, Bacchetta MD, Huzzard LL, Rapkin BD. End-of-life decision-making in the hospital: current practice and future prospects. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999; 17:6-15. [ Medline abstract ]

Grenvik A, Powner DJ, Snyder JV, Jastremski MS, Babcock RA, Loughhead MG. Cessation of therapy in terminal illness and brain death. Crit Care Med 1978; 6:284-91. [ Medline abstract ]

Hall RI, Rocker GM. End-of-life care in the ICU: treatments provided when life support was or was not withdrawn. Chest 2000; 118:1424-30. [ Medline abstract ]

Keenan SP, Busche KD, Chen LM, Esmail R, Inman KJ, Sibbald WJ. Withdrawal and withholding of life support in the intensive care unit: a comparison of teaching and community hospitals. The Southwestern Ontario Critical Care Research Network. Crit Care Med 1998; 26:245-51. [ Medline abstract ]

Keenan SP, Busche KD, Chen LM, McCarthy L, Inman KJ, Sibbald WJ. A retrospective review of a large cohort of patients undergoing the process of withholding or withdrawal of life support. Crit Care Med 1997; 25:1324-31. [ Medline abstract ]

Koch KA, Rodeffer HD, Wears RL. Changing patterns of terminal care management in an intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 1994; 22:233-43. [ Medline abstract ]

Lee DK, Swinburne AJ, Fedullo AJ, Wahl GW. Withdrawing care. Experience in a medical intensive care unit. Jama 1994; 271:1358-61. [ Medline abstract ]

Manara AR, Pittman JA, Braddon FE. Reasons for withdrawing treatment in patients receiving intensive care. Anaesthesia 1998; 53:523-8. [ Medline abstract ]

Martinot A, Grandbastien B, Leteurtre S, Duhamel A, Leclerc F. No resuscitation orders and withdrawal of therapy in French paediatric intensive care units. Groupe Francophone de Reanimation et d'Urgences Pediatriques. Acta Paediatr 1998; 87:769-73. [ Medline abstract ]

Mayer SA, Kossoff SB. Withdrawal of life support in the neurological intensive care unit. Neurology 1999; 52:1602-9. [ Medline abstract ]

McLean RF, Tarshis J, Mazer CD, Szalai JP. Death in two Canadian intensive care units: institutional difference and changes over time. Crit Care Med 2000; 28:100-3. [ Medline abstract ]

Melltorp G, Nilstun T. Decisions to forego life-sustaining treatment and the duty of documentation. Intensive Care Med 1996; 22:1015-9. [ Medline abstract ]

O'Callahan JG, Fink C, Pitts LH, Luce JM. Withholding and withdrawing of life support from patients with severe head injury. Crit Care Med 1995; 23:1567-75. [ Medline abstract ]

Partridge JC, Wall SN. Analgesia for dying infants whose life support is withdrawn or withheld. Pediatrics 1997; 99:76-9. [ Medline abstract ]

Pochard F, Azoulay E, Chevret S, et al. French intensivists do not apply American recommendations regarding decisions to forgo life-sustaining therapy. Crit Care Med 2001; 29:1887-92. [ Medline abstract ]

Prendergast TJ, Claessens MT, Luce JM. A national survey of end-of-life care for critically ill patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 158:1163-7. [ Medline abstract ]

Prendergast TJ, Luce JM. Increasing incidence of withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997; 155:15-20. [ Medline abstract ]

Seymour JE. Negotiating natural death in intensive care. Soc Sci Med 2000; 51:1241-52. [ Medline abstract ]

Slomka J. The negotiation of death: clinical decision making at the end of life. Soc Sci Med 1992; 35:251-9. [ Medline abstract ]

Smedira NG, Evans BH, Grais LS, et al. Withholding and withdrawal of life support from the critically ill. N Engl J Med 1990; 322:309-15. [ Medline abstract ]

van der Wal ME, Renfurm LN, van Vught AJ, Gemke RJ. Circumstances of dying in hospitalized children. Eur J Pediatr 1999; 158:560-5. [ Medline abstract ]

Wall SN, Partridge JC. Death in the intensive care nursery: physician practice of withdrawing and withholding life support. Pediatrics 1997; 99:64-70. [ Medline abstract ]

Wilson WC, Smedira NG, Fink C, McDowell JA, Luce JM. Ordering and administration of sedatives and analgesics during the withholding and withdrawal of life support from critically ill patients. Jama 1992; 267:949-53. [ Medline abstract ]

Return to top

[ Go Up ]

Promoting Excellence in End of-Life Care is a National Program Office of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation dedicated to long-term changes in health care institutions to substantially improve care for dying persons and their families. Visit for more resources.

Promoting Excellence