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Fast Fact and Concept #23: DNR Orders in the Hospital -- Part 1

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Title: Fast Fact and Concept #23: DNR Orders in the Hospital -- Part 1

Author(s): Weissman, D.; von Gunten, C.

This Fast Fact and Concept reviews the basic steps in discussing DNR (do not resuscitate) orders in the hospital setting. This could be used during ward rounds or in a conference discussing goal setting and DNR orders.


Educational Objective(s)
Review the steps in conducting a DNR discussion with a seriously ill patient in the hospital.
DNR discussions with seriously ill patients in the hospital should always take place in the context of the larger goals of care, using a step-wise approach (1). Prior to any DNR discussions, physicians must know the data defining outcomes and morbidity of CPR in different patient populations (2).

1. Establish the setting
Ensure comfort and privacy; sit down next to the patient. Ask if family members or others should be present. Introduce the subject with a phrase such as: I'd like to talk with you about possible health care decisions in the future.

2. What does the patient understand?
Ask an open-ended question to elicit patient understanding about their current health situation. It is important to get the patient talking--if the doctor is doing all the talking, it is unlikely that the rest of the conversation will go well. Consider starting with phrases such as: What do you understand about your current health situation? or What have the doctors told you about your condition? If the patient does not know/appreciate their current status this is time to review that information. An informed decision about DNR status is only possible if the patient has a clear understanding of their illness and prognosis.

3. What does the patient expect?
Next, ask the patient to consider the future. Examples of ways to start this discussion are: What do you expect in the future? or What goals do you have for the time you have left-what is important to you? This step allows you to listen while the patient describes a real or imagined future. Most patients with advanced disease use this opening to voice their thoughts about dying-typically mentioning comfort, family, and home, as their goals of care. If there is a sharp discontinuity between what you expect and what the patient expects, this is the time to clarify. Listen carefully to the patient's responses; most patients have thought a lot about dying, they only need permission to talk about what they have been thinking. Setting up the conversation in this way permits the physician to respond with clarifying and confirming comments such as: So what you're saying is, you want to be as comfortable as possible when the time comes, or What you've said is, you want us to do everything we can to fight, but when the time comes, you want to die peacefully. Whenever possible, ask patients to explain the values that underlie their decisions: can you explain why you feel that way?

4. Discuss a DNR order
Use language that the patient will understand, give information in small pieces. Don't introduce CPR in mechanistic terms (e.g. "starting the heart" or "putting on a breathing machine"). Never say, "Do you want us to do everything?" "Everything" is euphemistic and easily misinterpreted. Using the word "die" helps to clarify that CPR is a treatment that tries to reverse death. To a layman, when the heart and/or lungs stop, the patient dies.

If the patient and doctor mutually recognize that death is approaching and the goals of care are comfort, then CPR is not an appropriate medical intervention and a clear recommendation against CPR should be made. You can say: We have agreed that the goals of care are to keep you comfortable and get you home. With this in mind, I do not recommend the use of artificial or heroic means to keep you alive. If you agree with this, I will write an order in the chart that if you die, no attempt to resuscitate you will be made.

If the clinical situation is more ambiguous in terms of prognosis and goals of care, and you have no clear recommendation, the issue of DNR can be raised by asking: If you should die in spite of all of our efforts, do you want us to use heroic measures to attempt to bring you back? or How do you want things to be when you die? If you are asked to explain "heroic measures", then describe the purpose, risks and benefits of CPR in greater detail. The clinical pearl here is to start general and become specific later in the conversation.

5. Respond to emotions
Strong emotions are common when discussing death. Typically the emotional response is brief. The most profound initial response a physician can make may be silence, providing a reassuring touch, and offering facial tissues. (see future Fast Fact on responding to emotions).

6. Establish a plan
Clarify the orders and plans that will accomplish the overall goals you have discussed, not just the DNR order. A DNR order does not address any aspect of care other than preventing the use of CPR. It is unwise and poor practice to use DNR status as a proxy for other life-sustaining therapies. Consider using words: We will continue maximal medical therapy to meet your goals. However, if you die in spite of everything, we won't use CPR to bring you back, or It sounds like we should move to a plan that maximizes your comfort. Therefore, in addition to a DNR order, I'd like to ask my hospice/palliative care colleagues to give you some information.

Also See:
Fast Fact #24: DNR Orders in the Hospital Setting -- Part 2

References

1. Buckman, R. How to break bad news: a guide for health care professionals. 1992, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

2. Junkerman, Charles and Schiedermayer, David. Practical Ethics for Students, Interns and Residents, 2nd Ed. University Publishing Group ISBN 1-55572-054-4

Fast Facts and Concepts was originally developed as an end-of-life teaching tool by Eric Warm, MD, U. Cincinnati, Department of Medicine. See: Warm, E. Improving EOL care--internal medicine curriculum project. J Pall Med 1999; 2: 339-340.

Contact: David E. Weissman, MD, FACP Editor, Journal of Palliative Medicine Palliative Care Program, Director Medical College of Wisconsin (P) 414-805-4607(F) 414-805-4608

Copyright Notice: Users are free to download and distribute Fast Facts for educational purposes only. Citation for referencing: Weissman, D. Fast Fact and Concepts #23: DNR Orders in the Hospital--Part 1. October, 2000. End-of-Life Physician Education Resource Center www.eperc.mcw.edu.

Disclaimer: Fast Facts provide educational information, this information is not medical advice. Health care providers should exercise their own independent clinical judgment. Some Fast Fact information cites the use of a product in dosage, for an indication, or in a manner other than that recommended in the product labeling. Accordingly, the official prescribing information should be consulted before any such product is used.

Creation Date: 9/2000

Format: Handouts

Purpose: Instructional Aid, Self-Study Guide

Audience(s)
Training: Fellows, 3rd/4th Year Medical Students, PGY1 (Interns), PGY2-6, Physicians in Practice
Specialty: Anesthesiology, Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine, General Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Hematology/Oncology, Neurology, OB/GYN, Ophthalmology, Pulmonary/Critical Care, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Surgery
Non-Physician: Clergy/Chaplains, Nurses, Social Workers

ACGME Competencies: Medical Knowledge, Patient Care, Professionalism

Keyword(s): Advance directives, Do not rescucitate orders, Negotiating treatment goals, Treatment withdrawal, Treatment withholding


The Fast Facts series is distributed for educational use only and does not constitute medical advice. For the most current version of Fast Facts visit the EPERC web site at www.eperc.mcw.edu. This mirror version is provided subject to copyright restrictions for educational use within the Inter-Instutional Collaborating Network on End-of-Life Care (IICN).